Insight 2018-02-15T18:00:36+00:00

ARPWAVE TECHNOLOGY  / SCIENCE

The ARPwave Rx100 device is based on the following research and scientific theories:

Dr. Björn Nordenström’s extensive research and studies, including his book, “Biologically closed Electric Circuits”, compelling evidence that the human body is a biologically closed electrical system and when disease or injury occurs, there is a charge formed in the affected tissue.  For healing to occur, this charge has to be eliminated, either by the body or an outside source of electrical current.  The charge, if not dissipated, may form scar tissue leading to a permanent restricted range of motion.  ARP Manufacturing, LLC‘s waveform with a direct current component was developed to produce an electrotherapy modality that can penetrate tissue to dissipate the “charge of injury” causing little surface pain or damage through a controlled feedback mechanism.

In addition to Dr. Björn Nordesnström’s studies this “charge of injury” theory is also based on the work of Robert Becker, “The Body Electric“, and Nobel Laureates E. Nehr and B. Sakmann.  Becker determined that collagen becomes charged and forms scar tissue when physically abused, and Nehr and Sakmann demonstrated that cells communicate with each other electrically.  At injured sites, cells embedded in charged collagen have their communication disrupted, preventing the reduction of inflammation and edema.  ARP Manufacturing, LLC’s theory holds that introducing electrical current to dissipate the charge in injured collagen will assist in preventing the formation of scar tissue and reduce inflammation.  The application of electrical current is generally a more desirable approach than using steroids or other chemical agents.

Bradykinin Theory; Bradykinin is a highly potent chemical produced by the body as a result of tissue damage.  It is a major factor in developing the usual effects of trauma, such as; edema, pain, muscle spasms, etc.  When collagen is injured, it becomes charged and creates an environment that stimulates production of Bradykinin.  ARP Manufacturing, LLC’s theory is that introducing an electrical current deeply enough to eliminate the charge of injury will diminish the formation of Bradykinin and thus greatly reduce the effects of trauma.  Several other prominent researchers point to the fact that production of Kinins may be produced in the presence of a negative field.

ARP Manufacturing, LLC believes the unique patented mixing of specialized frequencies allows for ease of penetration to the area of injury.  The utilization of our waveform in combination with the affected body portion while in motion during treatments increases effectiveness.  This device utilizes a fluctuating direct current rather than alternating currents which most other modalities are using.  The direct current approach automatically dissipates a charge, as indicated by Nordenström.  The significance of direct current is that it neutralizes the “charge of injury” that the affected area of the of the body produces.  When the body is injured the result is a charged system; i.e., inflammation which in most cases creates pain, restricted motion, etc.

Feature

ARPwave Rx100

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

Power Electrical Muscle Stimulation (PEMS)

Microcurrent Electrical Nerve Stimulation (MENS)

Interferential

Depth of Penetration

Complete

Shallow

Moderate

Moderate

Shallow to Moderate

Surface Pain

Minimal or None

Irritating

Irritating to Painful

None

Minimal or None

Trigger Point Location

Very Good

Fair

Good

Fair

Minimal or None

Rapid Results

Very Good

Poor

Fair

Fair

Good

Increased Range of Motion

Very Good

Minimal or None

Fair

Minimal or None

Good

Penetration Depth Enhanced with Motion

Very Good

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Conditioning

Very Good

None

Fair

None

Poor


RESEARCH

A MUST READ – NEW CLINICAL RESEARCH:
View the latest research by clicking on this link: NEW RESEARCH

The cellular processes of tissue and bone healing are complex and multifactorial. The scientific basis for ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy is the positive cellular effects of direct current electrical fields on these processes.

Direct current has been shown to affect cellular migration and orientation, endothelialization, protein synthesis, and calcium regulation, as well as stimulation of new bone formation and fracture healing.(4,6,7,10,18,19,21,22,24,25)

The initial response after injury is coagulation modulated by plasma platelet cells that form fibrin clots to stop bleeding.

The clots attract polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and fibroblasts that, in turn, adhere to the clots forming a fibrin gel. The PMNs consume bacteria and wound debris by secreting proteases.

Platelets also release growth factors that attract monocytes to the site of injury. Monocytes mature into macrophages that become the controlling cells in tissue healing.

Macrophages continue the process of bacteria phagocytosis and cleaning of wound debris and also secrete growth factors that attract and activate fibroblasts.

Fibroblasts proliferate and migrate, and produce a collagen matrix. Concomitantly, endothelial cells migrate to the collagen matrix to produce new blood vessels in this matrix.

Granulation tissue is formed composed of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, PMNs, and a collagen matrix.

Direct current electrical fields can modulate a number of factors involved in the healing response. A major process that is affected by direct current is cellular migration and orientation.

Cooper and Keller, working with amphibian neural crest cells exposed to a direct current field, demonstrated a migration of cells towards the cathode with a resultant perpendicular cellular orientation.(7) In further studies, Cooper and Schliwa concluded that cell locomotion could be controlled with manipulation of the direct current field.(8)

This process, called galvanotaxis, has been demonstrated also in neutrophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts.(10,18,21,22,23)

Direct current can also produce changes in endothelialization. Nannmark et al reported an increased permeability to macromolecules, and changes in capillary permeability to white blood cells with exposure to low levels of direct current.(19) Direct current can affect the migration of endothelial cells in vitro.(24)

Intracellular processes are also affected by exposure to direct current. Cheng et al established that relatively low levels of direct current can raise the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level almost 500 % and increase protein synthesis and membrane transport.(6)

Bourguignon et al demonstrated an uncapping of insulin receptors on the cell membrane and enhancement of protein and DNA synthesis within the first minute after direct current stimulation.(4)

New bone formation and fracture healing are positively affected by the application of a direct current electrical field.(11,12,14,17)

The net effect of direct current on bone is an increase in osteoblastic activity and new bone formation around the cathode. These effects are optimally demonstrated with a current level of 5 to 20 micro amps. Studies have shown increased spinal fusion rates, and increased healing of fracture nonunions.(5,9,13)

The scientific basis for the use of direct current stimulation in tissue healing has long been established. The clinical problem has been in the application of the direct current without severe discomfort and skin damage. With precise application of an ingenious, patented background waveform, ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy technology allows clinically appropriate levels of direct current to be delivered to tissues safely.

References:

ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy is the culmination of an immense body of research comprising the science behind the technology:

*Bassett CAL, Hermann I. The effect of electrostatic fields on macromolecular synthesis by fibroblasts in vitro. J Cell Biol, 329: 9, 1968.
*Borgens RB, Vanable JW, Jaffe LF. Bioelectricity and regeneration. Large currents leave the stumps of regenerating newt limbs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 74: 4528-4532, 1977.
*Borgens RB, Chapter 5: Integumentary potentials and Wound Healing in Electric Fields in Vertebrate Repair: Natural and Applied Voltages in Vertebrate Regeneration and Healing. Borgens RB, Robinson KR, Vanable JW, McGinis ME, McCaig CD (eds). New York, NY, Alan R. Liss, pp 171-224, 1989.
*Bourguignon GJ, Wenche JY, and Bourguignon L. Electrical stimulation of human fibroblasts cause an increase in calcium influx and the exposure of additional insulin receptors. J Cellular Physiology, 140: 379-385,1989.
*Brighton CT. Current concepts review: The treatment of nonunions with electricity. J Bone Joint Surg, 62A: 847-851, 1981.
*Cheng N, et al. The effect of electrocurrents on ATP generation protein synthesis, and membrane transport in rat skin. Clinical Orthopedics, 171: 264-272, 1982.
*Cooper MS, Keller RE. Perpendicular orientation and directional migration of amphibian neural crest cells in DC electric fields. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 81: 160-164, 1985.
*Cooper MS, Schliwa M. Electrical and ionic controls of tissue cell locomotion in DC electric fields. J. Neurosci Res, 13: 223-244, 1985.
*Dwyer AF, Wickham GG. Direct current stimulation in spinal fusion. Med J Aust, 1: 73-75, 1974.
*Erickson CA, Nuccitelli RL. Embryonic cell motility can be guided by physiological electric fields. J Cell Biol, 98: 296-307, 1984. >
*Friedenberg ZB, Kohanim M. The effect of direct current on bone. Surg Gynecol Obstet, 131: 894-899, 1970.
*Friedenberg ZB, Andrews ET, Smolenski BI et al. Bone reaction to varying amounts of direct current, Surg Gynecol Obstet, 131: 894-899, 1970.
*Friedenberg ZB, Harlow MC, Brighton CT. Healing of nonunion of medial malleolus by means of direct current: a case report. J Trauma, 11: 883-885, 1971.
*Friedenberg ZB, Roberts PG, Didizian NH, Brighton CT. Stimulation of fracture healing by direct current in the rabbit fibula. J Bone Joint Surg, 53A: 1400-1408, 1971.
*Goh JCH, Bose K, Kang YK, Nugroho B. Effects of electrical stimulation on biomechanical properties of fracture healing in rabbits. Clin Orthop, 233: 268-273, 1988.
*Illingworth CM, Baker AT. Measurement of electrical currents emerging during the regeneration of amputated finger tips in children. Clin Phys Physiol Meas, 1: 87, 1980.
*Lavine LS, Lustrin I, Shamos M, Moss ML. The influence of electric current on bone regeneration in vivo. Acta Orthop Scand, 42: 305-314, 1971.
*Luther PW, Peng HB, Lin JC. Changes in cell shape and action distribution induced by constant electrical fields. Nature, 303: 61-64, 1985.
*Nannmark U, Buch F, Albrektsson T. Vascular reactions during electrical stimulation. Vital microscopy of the hamster cheek pouch and the rabbit tibia. Acta Orthop Scand, 56: 52-56, 1985.
*Nessler JP, Mass DP. Direct current electrical stimulation of tendon healing in vitro. Clinical Orthpedics, 217: 303 -308, 1985.
*Orida N, Feldman JHD. Directional protrusive psudopodial activity and motility in macrophages induced by extracellular electric fields. Cell Motility, 2: 243-255, 1982.
*Nucatelli R, Erickson Ca. Embryonic cell motility can be guided by physiologic electric fields. Exp Cell Res, 147: 195-201, 1983.
*Pethig R, Kell DB. The passive electrical properties of biologic systems: their significance in physiology, biophysics, and biotechnology. Phys Med Biol, 32 (8): 933-970, 1987.
*Sawyer PN, Suckling EE, Wesolowski SA. Effect of small electric currents on intravascular thrombosis in the visualized rat mesentery. Am J Physiol, 198: 1006-1010, 1960.
*Schwan HP. Mechanisms responsible for electrical properties of tissues and cell suspension. Med Prog Technol, 19 (4): 163-165, 1993-94.


HISTORY OF NEURO-THERAPY:

ARPwave Neuro Therapy was developed by Denis Thompson, the founder and CEO of ARPwave. Neuro Therapy was carefully designed to address the neurological origin of a problem, not just the symptoms. Present therapy and diagnosis (X-ray, MRI) address where symptoms end up (Pain Site, Breaks, Tears, Herniation, etc.). Because of this, many issues/injuries linger, reoccur and are never resolved. With over 40 years of researching symptoms and progression, it was clear that where the symptoms ended up, shed no light on why the symptoms began. Once we began researching the neurological ability of absorbing force we were able to answer “Why”.

The first step to being able to treat the neurological origin was to develop a testing protocol to make sure the patients nervous system is communicating properly to the muscles. ARPwave calls this critical step Neuro Efficiency testing. Years of research indicated the overwhelming majority of people were not neurologically efficient. It was clear that to treat the origin of the symptoms it was necessary to have the patient’s nervous system communicating efficiently to the muscles. This created the need to create a reset. The reset is to establish a client’s neurological ability to absorb force, this process is done without manipulation of any kind and ARPwave calls this a Neuro Reset.

Once the client is neurologically efficient, the next step was to create a diagnostic tool (RX100 ARPtrainer) and protocol to establish the break in communication from the nervous system to the muscles; after all, muscle is the outward expression of the nervous system. Dr. Björn Nordenström’s extensive research and studies, including his book, “Biologically closed Electric Circuits”, provides compelling evidence that the human body is a biologically closed electrical system and when disease or injury occurs, there is a charge formed in the affected tissue. This finding assists in explaining why ARPwave developed the diagnostic tools and protocol we use today. We can now identify the origin of the miscommunication and figure out what exactly is causing the symptoms. This step is called Neuro Diagnostics.

Since all symptoms of pain or restricted motion are a neurological pattern, ARPwave developed a 20 session treatment plan to disrupt the old pattern and create a new neurological pattern. ARPwave calls this step Neuro Pattern Reset. The philosophy behind the Neuro Pattern Reset is the greater the stimulus the greater the change. ARPwave’s Neuro Pattern Reset breaks old compensation patterns and dramatically improves functional strength allowing all clients to move freely without pain.

To date, ARPwave has treated hundreds of thousands of patients with Neuro Therapy with a better than a 95% success rate of eliminating pain, restricted range of motion, and atrophy.

ARPwave has thousands of the world’s most elite amateur and professional athletes as clients.

Up until now, Neuro Therapy was administered exclusively by ARPwaveLLC. ARPwave now has a patent on the treatment process and services are reimbursable by all carriers if the patients policy covers it.

Neuro Therapy is NOW available as a treatment program for your practice. Join our Neuro Therapy provider network.


ARPWAVE NEURO-THERAPY RESULTS:

Outcomes for ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy have been based, thus far, on retrospective clinical observations. Randomized, double blinded, prospective studies have been initiated for the treatment of ankle sprains, hamstring injuries, and distal radius fractures. The hypotheses for these prospective studies is that ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy will yield recovery rates 60% to 80% faster than for traditional conservative treatment.

The basis for these hypotheses is the large retrospective clinical data on ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy over the past 5 years. In general, recovery rates for acute soft tissue injury have been 60% to 80% shorter than the predicted clinical outcome. Specific examples include grade II lateral ankle sprains, and grade II acute hamstring injury.

Athletes sustaining grade II lateral ankle sprains (partial ligament tear with moderate swelling and ecchymosis and limited weight bearing ability) treated with 6 to 10 ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy sessions, and no other conservative treatment except supportive bracing, had an average recovery rate and return to play at 3 to 5 days post injury. Athletes sustaining grade II hamstring injuries (1-2cm soft tissue defect with associated ecchymosis and inability to walk without limp) treated also with 6 to 10 ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy sessions, without other modalities, had an average recovery rate and return to play at 8 to 12 days post injury.

These accelerated recovery rates also extrapolated to the more severe grade III injuries, as well as chronic soft tissue tendinopathies. In many cases of chronic tendinopathy, all other conservative measures were exhausted, without relief of symptoms, before ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy was initiated.

The ARPWAVE Neuro Therapy experience has produced a sense of astonishment among both the practitioner and the patient. Undoubtedly, prospective data will be required to corroborate these retrospective findings, but it is certainly clear that the rate of acceleration in healing has been dramatic.